prof. RNDr. Pavel Danihelka CSc.
Future Forces Forum Geospatial, Hydrometeorological and GNSS Conference (GEOMETOC) 2018 Výstava Future Forces 2018
Fakulta bezpečnostního inženýrství
Vysoká škola báňská – Technická univerzita Ostrava
NATECH – Technological disasters initiated by natural hazards
According UNISDR Sendai Framework, disasters bring great damage, losses, disruptions or destruction, whether happened through natural or technological causes. They cause losses of life and property, and social and economic disruption. Disasters occur when vulnerable objects are exposed to hazards. Natural hazards as flood, storm, landslide, earthquake or volcanic eruption lead to major human, environmental and financial losses. Recent years have seen a dramatic rise in the frequency and magnitude of disasters, both natural and man-made. There is a special phenomenon, when natural disasters or even natural events can trigger secondary disasters such as toxic (adioactive) atmosphere release, spill of hazardous materials, fire or explosion. Natural hazards affecting chemical or nuclear facilities attract particular attention. These conjoint natural and technological disasters are termed "NATECHs": Natural-hazard triggered technological accidents. Examples of NATECH accidents are Fukushima power plant disaster after tsunami, oil spilling during hurricane Katrina, chlorine release during floods in Czech Spolana (2002) and many others.
There is increased concern of the danger posed by NATECH accidents since they can cause the release of hazardous substances resulting in severe environmental pollution, explosions or fires and infrastructure disruption. Natural disasters and technological accidents had been usually studied as separate events and thus, there is limited information available on the interactions between natural events and triggered technological accidents. Awareness of the hazard posed by NATECHs is growing, and a need for explicitly including them into chemical accident prevention, preparedness and response programmes is well recognised. The importance of Natechs was recognised by UNISDR and in both Sendai (2015) and Cancún (2017) Global Platforms on Disaster Risk Reduction, special sections on Natechs were organized. Natechs are also involved into SEVESO III Directive demands.
An international project on NATECHs was launched by the 2009-2012 Programme of Work of the OECD Chemical Accidents Programme and continues till now as “Natech II” Project. The objectives of the project were to investigate the specific elements of Natechs and to make recommendations for good practices with respect to prevention of, preparedness for and response to NATECH accidents.
Two global workshops on NATECH Risk Management was held, the first on 23-25 May 2012 in Dresden, Germany [see OECD ENV/JM/MONO(2013)4]) and the second in Potsdam on 5 – 7 September 2018. The purpose of the workshops was to discuss specific elements of the prevention of, preparedness for and response to chemical accidents caused by a natural hazard or natural disaster and to make recommendations for best practices related to NATECH s. The recommendations from the first workshop were presented at the 22nd Working Group on Chemical Accidents meeting (WGCA) and the WGCA developed an addendum to the OECD Guiding Principles on Chemical Accident Prevention, Preparedness and Response to address NATECH Risk Management. This document was published under the responsibility of the OECD Joint Meeting of the Chemical Committee and Working Party on Chemicals, Pesticides and Biotechnology, and agreed that it be unclassified and made publically available.
Another Amendment proposal as a result of second workshop is in the process of preparation by the Natech II Steering Committee nowadays.
Chemik, vysokoškolský pedagog, vědecký pracovník. Po absolvování Přírodovědecké fakulty Univerzity Karlovy pracoval na Vysoké škole báňské Ostrava, postupně jako vědecký pracovník, docent chemie (habilitace 1991, UK Praha) a profesor průmyslové bezpečnosti (inaugurace 2002, VŠB). Profesně se věnuje nebezpečným chemickým látkám, bezpečnosti a ochraně životního prostředí. Absolvoval řadu zahraničních studijních a pracovních pobytů, je členem pracovních skupin Evropské unie, OECD, OSN a NATO zabývajících se průmyslovými haváriemi a snižováním rizik přírodních katastrof. Je delegát ČR v programovém výboru EU Horizont 2020 – Bezpečná společnost, člen poradní komise bezpečnostního výzkumu ČR a president České technologické platformy průmyslové bezpečnosti. Úspěšně vedl téměř padesát postgraduálních studentů (CSc., PhD atd.)