Alexandre Papy


MAJ Alexandre Papy Ph.D., Ir.

Future Forces Forum Future Forces Individual Systems Congress (FFISC) - International Industry Day 2018 Future Forces Exhibition 2018

Associate professor in the department of Weapon Systems & Ballistics; JNLW CG Chairman
Royal Military Academy


Effects of Non-lethal impacts on the human body

Minimizing civilian casualties and unnecessary collateral damage during military or law-enforcement operations has always been a tough challenge. Non-lethal weapons allow a gradual response in case of a continuous escalation in force deployment. Kinetic Energy Non-Lethal Weapons (KENLW) are the most widely spread category of these types of weapons.

Assessing the injury potential associated with the use of a KENLW is obviously a major concern for all the actors whose ultimate objective is to improve the projectile characteristics and to give recommendations to the end-user. To achieve this goal injury criteria have been defined. Depending on the impact zone and the available data in the literature, the lethality can be directly assessed by different means. One possible solution is to use a biomechanical surrogate which is a mechanical structure with which one can determine the associated metric of the considered injury criterion. Another way to proceed is to compute the metric associated to the injury criterion using numerical simulations.

A review of key concepts and injury criteria is presented in the first part of this presentation. The selected criteria are explained and justified.

In the second part, the method is developed and used to assess the lethality of existing projectiles for some distances of engagement. The results are then presented, discussed in details and some of them are correlated with real world examples.

Curriculum Vitae



Master in engineering – specialty in weapon systems and ballistics, Royal Military Academy, 1992-1997

"Diplôme d’études approfondies” in applied sciences (internal ballistics), Brussels Free University, 2002.

PhD in applied sciences, Brussels Free University, 2001-2005


1998 –2000 

Shooting officer ( 1st Field Artillery Regiment, Bastogne, Belgium)

2000 - 2008

Assistant in the department of weapon systems & ballistics of the Royal Military Academy (Brussels, Belgium).

2004 - 2008

Forensics expert in Brussels, Namur and Mons

2008 - …

Associate professor in the department of weapon systems & ballistics of the Royal Military Academy.


Experience in the field of NLW

Members of international groups:


     - SAS (078/094/133)

     - DAT NLC / DAT PoW

     - LCG9/LCG DSS NLC/JNLW CG (vice-chairman)

     - NLKE ToE  (chairman, STANREC 4744 custodian)


     - EDA NLC PT

     - EWG on NLW (vice-chairman, NLW symposium )


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